Revisiting the ‘university image model’ for higher education institutions’ sustainability

Shamima Raihan Manzoor*, Jessica Sze Yin Ho, Abdullah Al Mahmud

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Citations (Scopus)


Global student mobility has reached far beyond Europe, North America, and Australia. Malaysia, Singapore, and South Korea have become the ‘emerging contenders’ focusing on attracting international students, primarily from other Asian countries. This heightened competition among higher education institutions (HEIs) challenges their sustainability. This study, therefore, aims to investigate Alcaide-Pulido, Alves, and Gutiérrez-Villar's university image model and its influence on students’ citizenship behaviour in the context of HEIs’ achieving sustainability. Data were collected from 223 international students at two reputable Malaysian universities. The results, showing that ‘image’ is a ‘higher-order construct’, extend the university image model and reveal a reformation of the ‘image’ variables. The findings further reveal that the extended and reformed model is capable of building satisfaction among students, which, in turn, contributes to enhancing students’ citizenship behavioural outcomes (advocacy, feedback, helping behaviour, and tolerance). This can indirectly support HEIs’ sustainability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)220-239
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Marketing for Higher Education
Issue number2
Early online date25 Jun 2020
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jul 2021


  • citizenship behaviour
  • international student mobility
  • Marketing of higher education
  • sustainable HEIs
  • university image

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Marketing


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