The depletion of fossil fuel reserves and increment of concern on environmental sustainability has motivated industries to search for alternatives for both energy generation and production of chemicals and materials. Among the alternative sources which are deemed to be viable, biomass has been identified as one of those with the highest potential sources to replace fossil fuel. In order to convert biomass into biofuels, bioenergy and biochemical, a sustainable integrated biorefinery is needed to integrate multiple biomass conversion processes with minimum impact to the environment, health and safety aspects. Currently, integrated biorefinery is designed primarily based on economic performance and environmental impact as these are the most important factors for decision makers especially for the development of new processes. However, the challenge is mounted up in a way that the design of an integrated biorefinery needs to also simultaneously consider other factors such as energy utilization, inherent occupational health and safety hazard. The increasing number of technologies available in the market will add to the complexities in the synthesis and design of an integrated biorefinery. Hence, the aim of the current paper is to conduct a review on the sustainability assessment methodologies which was used during the process synthesis of an integrated biorefinery system.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)