Review of evolution, technology and sustainability assessments of biofuel production

Weng Hui Liew, Mimi H. Hassim*, Denny K. S. Ng

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

178 Citations (SciVal)


Biofuel is recognised as an important renewable and sustainable energy source to substitute fossil fuel. To date, biofuel has been evolved from first to fourth generation and they are mainly differed in feedstock and production technologies. Along with the evolution, various studies on different sustainability criteria have been conducted. In this review paper, the state of the art of technologies and assessment methods on economic performance, safety, health and environment (SHE) as well as social impact for biofuel production are reviewed. In addition, this review paper also evaluates the typical methodological framework used for systematic assessment during early process design phase. As conclusion, to establish the highest sustainability in biofuel production, continuous research and development on all sustainability-related aspects are very much needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-29
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2014


  • Biofuel
  • Environment
  • Health
  • Safety
  • Sustainable analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Strategy and Management
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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