Removal of cadmium from contaminated soil using soapnut, shikakai, rhamnolipids and EDTA

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This study investigates the operating variables of
washing experiments involving four washing agents
[Sapindus mukorossi (soapnut), Acacia concinna
(shikakai), rhamnolipids and
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)] for removal
of cadmium (Cd) from contaminated soil in laboratory
scale batch and column experiments. The operating
variables included: time (2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72
hrs), soil-solution ratio (1:10, 1:20, 1:30, 1:40 and
1:50), surfactant concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6%
by mass) and the pH of the washing solution (3, 3.5, 4,
4.5, 5 and 5.5). Results show that the removal efficiency
increases with increase in surfactant concentration,
soil-solution ratio as well as washing time, but
decreases as pH increases.
It was also observed that the maximum removal
efficiencies of 84.9% for soapnut, 87.4% for shikakai
and 68.9% were obtained when 0.01M EDTA was
mixed with biosurfactants at different concentrations.
In column experiments, the highest removal efficiencies
of 74.05%, 73.08%, 69.07%, 63.08% and 12.78% were
obtained for EDTA, soapnut, shikakai, rhamnolipids
and distilled water. The overall performance of the
washing process indicates that saponin utilization in
soil washing is much more effective than rhamnolipid.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42-52
Number of pages11
JournalResearch Journal of Chemistry and Environment
Issue number2
Early online date30 Jan 2020
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020


  • Biosurfactants
  • Remediation
  • Saponin
  • Soil washing
  • Spiked soil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

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