Referenceless characterization of complex media using physics-informed neural networks

Suraj Goel*, Claudio Conti, Saroch Leedumrongwatthanakun, Mehul Malik

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
24 Downloads (Pure)


In this work, we present a method to characterize the transmission matrices of complex scattering media using a physics-informed, multi-plane neural network (MPNN) without the requirement of a known optical reference field. We use this method to accurately measure the transmission matrix of a commercial multi-mode fiber without the problems of output-phase ambiguity and dark spots, leading to up to 58% improvement in focusing efficiency compared with phase-stepping holography. We demonstrate how our method is significantly more noise-robust than phase-stepping holography and show how it can be generalized to characterize a cascade of transmission matrices, allowing one to control the propagation of light between independent scattering media. This work presents an essential tool for accurate light control through complex media, with applications ranging from classical optical networks, biomedical imaging, to quantum information processing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32824-32839
Number of pages16
JournalOptics Express
Issue number20
Early online date18 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - 25 Sept 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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