Rectenna Design and Optimization Using Reciprocity Theory and Harmonic Balance Analysis for Electromagnetic (EM) Energy Harvesting

Apostolos Georgiadis, G. Andia, Ana Collado

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137 Citations (Scopus)


A rectenna design methodology combining electromagnetic (EM) simulation and harmonic balance (HB) analysis is presented. It consists of applying reciprocity theory to calculate the Thevenin equivalent circuit of the receiving antenna and optimizing the rectifying circuit parameters using HB analysis. The method is demonstrated by designing a 2.45-GHz rectenna based on a square aperture-coupled patch antenna with dual linear polarization. A compact implementation is achieved by etching a cross-shaped slot on the patch surface leading to a 32.5% patch side reduction. Voltage-doubling circuits convert the received RF power from each port to dc permitting the rectenna to receive arbitrarily polarized signals. The circuit is optimized for low input power densities and a simulated maximum efficiency of 38.2% was obtained for 1.5 uWcm(-2) input RF power density at 2.43 GHz.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)444-446
Number of pages3
JournalIEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • Energy harvesting
  • harmonic balance (HB)
  • reciprocity theory
  • rectenna

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