Recent advances in the field of peptide nucleic acids

Nicola M. Howarth

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Since their development, peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have attracted much attention as potential pharmacological regulators of gene expression. Currently, applications of PNAs are restricted through deficiencies in target specificity, aqueous solubility and cellular uptake. This highlight reviews syntheses and hybridisation properties of recent PNA analogues designed to address these limitations. © 2006 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)495-503
Number of pages9
JournalLetters in Organic Chemistry
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2006


  • Backbone modifications
  • Hybridisation properties
  • Nucleobase modifications
  • Peptide nucleic acids
  • PNA analogues
  • Side chain modifications


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