## Abstract

Waterflooding is a very common method of oil displacement and pressure support. One particular problem that may arise after injection water (IW) breakthrough at the production well is the formation of sulphate scale. One of the main parameters that determines the severity of this type of scale formation is the amount of injection water/formation water (IW/FW) mixing that has taken place. Thus, the injected water fraction in the produced brine mix is an important value to determine. Our ability to model scale precipitation in situ and in the well is linked to our ability to accurately determine the IW fraction at production wells. Current industry practice is to work on an analytic approach for determining the fraction of IW in the produced brine stream in general, and for identifying IW breakthrough in particular. A robust and accurate method for determining IW fraction in field produced water analysis is required to match the modelled IW fractions. When this is achieved, it is possible to use various modelling techniques with a higher degree of confidence to predict future scaling tendencies, and to help implement an appropriate scale management strategy to economically mitigate the potential effects of scale damage. In this paper, the "Reacting Ions" method is introduced for determining the fraction of IW (and FW) in produced waters. This method is then applied to a synthetic produced water case where the "correct" answer is known, and a very good match is achieved, even when significant noise is applied to the synthetic data. The method is then applied in the analysis of produced brines for several wells in a North Sea field. Results of the study presented here show that the method is more effective in detecting IW fractions than conventional ion tracking techniques, especially at low IW fractions close to when breakthrough occurs. The significant new development presented in this work is that this approach may be used accurately even in situations where scale deposition deep in the reservoir impacts the concentrations of the tons used in this method. Copyright 2009, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | Proceedings - International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry 2009 |

Pages | 801-816 |

Number of pages | 16 |

Volume | 2 |

Publication status | Published - 2009 |

Event | International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry 2009 - The Woodlands, TX, United States Duration: 20 Apr 2009 → 22 Apr 2009 |

### Conference

Conference | International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry 2009 |
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Country | United States |

City | The Woodlands, TX |

Period | 20/04/09 → 22/04/09 |