Raman spectroscopy study of the transformation of the carbonaceous skeleton of a polymer-based nanoporous carbon along the thermal annealing pathway

Cheng Hu, Saeid Sedghi, Ana Silvestre-Albero, Gunther G. Andersson, Anirudh Sharma, Phillip Pendleton, Francisco Rodríguez-Reinoso, Katsumi Kaneko, Mark J. Biggs

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Abstract

We report a multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy study of the structural changes along the thermal annealing pathway of a poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) derived nanoporous carbon (NPC). The Raman spectra were deconvoluted utilizing G, D, D′, A and TPA bands. The appropriateness of these deconvolutions was confirmed via recovery of the correct dispersive behaviours of these bands. It is proposed that the ID/IG ratio is composed of two parts: one associated with the extent of graphitic crystallites (the Tuinstra-Koenig relationship), and a second related to the inter-defect distance. This model was used to successfully determine the variation of the in-plane size and intra-plane defect density along the annealing pathway. It is proposed that the NPC skeleton evolves along the annealing pathway in two stages: below 1600 °C it was dominated by a reduction of in-plane defects with a minor crystallite growth, and above this temperature growth of the crystallites accelerates as the in-plane defect density approaches zero. A significant amount of transpolyacetylene (TPA)-like structures was found to be remaining even at 2400 °C. These may be responsible for resistance to further graphitization of the PFA-based carbon at higher temperatures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-158
Number of pages12
JournalCarbon
Volume85
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)

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    Hu, C., Sedghi, S., Silvestre-Albero, A., Andersson, G. G., Sharma, A., Pendleton, P., Rodríguez-Reinoso, F., Kaneko, K., & Biggs, M. J. (2015). Raman spectroscopy study of the transformation of the carbonaceous skeleton of a polymer-based nanoporous carbon along the thermal annealing pathway. Carbon, 85, 147-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.12.098