Quantum money with nearly optimal error tolerance

Ryan Amiri, Juan Miguel Arrazola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)
32 Downloads (Pure)


We present a family of quantum money schemes with classical verification which display a number of benefits over previous proposals. Our schemes are based on hidden matching quantum retrieval games and they tolerate noise up to 23%, which we conjecture reaches 25% asymptotically as the dimension of the underlying hidden matching states is increased. Furthermore, we prove that 25% is the maximum tolerable noise for a wide class of quantum money schemes with classical verification, meaning our schemes are almost optimally noise tolerant. We use methods in semidefinite programming to prove security in a substantially different manner to previous proposals, leading to two main advantages: first, coin verification involves only a constant number of states (with respect to coin size), thereby allowing for smaller coins; second, the reusability of coins within our scheme grows linearly with the size of the coin, which is known to be optimal. Last, we suggest methods by which the coins in our protocol could be implemented using weak coherent states and verified using existing experimental techniques, even in the presence of detector inefficiencies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number062334
JournalPhysical Review A
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jun 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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