## Abstract

We consider a two-dimensional weakly interacting ultracold Bose gas whose constituents are two-level atoms. We study the effects of a synthetic density-dependent gauge field that arises from laser-matter coupling in the adiabatic limit with a laser configuration such that the single-particle zeroth-order vector potential corresponds to a constant synthetic magnetic field. We find a new exotic type of current nonlinearity in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation which affects the dynamics of the order parameter of the condensate. We investigate the rotational properties of this system in the Thomas-Fermi limit, focusing in particular on the physical conditions that make the existence of a quantized vortex in the system energetically favourable with respect to the non-rotating solution. We point out that two different physical interpretations can be given to this new nonlinearity: firstly it can be seen as a local modification of the mean field coupling constant, whose value depends on the angular momentum of the condensate. Secondly, it can be interpreted as a density modulated angular velocity given to the cloud. Looking at the problem from both of these viewpoints, we show that the effect of the new nonlinearity is to induce a rotation to the condensate, where the transition from non-rotating to rotating states depends on the density of the cloud.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 015304 |

Journal | Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics |

Volume | 49 |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 4 Dec 2015 |

## Keywords

- artificial gauge fields
- BoseEinstein condensates
- vortex states

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Condensed Matter Physics
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics