Quadrature Space-Frequency Index Modulation for Energy-Efficient 5G Wireless Communication Systems

Piya Patcharamaneepakorn, Cheng-Xiang Wang, Yu Fu, El Hadi M. Aggoune, Mohammed M. Alwakeel, Xiaofeng Tao, Xiaohu Ge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes a novel quadrature space-frequency index modulation (QSF-IM) scheme as a promising energy-efficient radio-access technology for the fifth generation (5G) wireless systems. Motivated by the potential energy saving of spatial modulation (SM) with part of information being carried through antenna indexes, the proposed scheme further leverages the benefits of SM by applying the idea across the spatial and frequency domains. Moreover, by deploying dual antenna constellation for in-phase and quadrature-phase transmission, the proposed scheme can enhance data rate at no extra cost of energy consumption, leading to further improvement in energy efficiency. Theoretical bit error rate (BER) and achievable sum-rate of the proposed scheme over frequency-selective correlated Rician and Rayleigh fading channels are derived and are shown to have good agreement with simulations. Further, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme is analyzed through a comprehensive list of performance metrics, including spectral efficiency (SE), energy efficiency (EE), cost efficiency (CE), and economic efficiency (ECE). Performance trade-offs between these metrics are thoroughly investigated. Compared with other existing schemes, the proposed QSF-IM scheme is demonstrated to offer better EE-SE and EE-CE trade-offs, and can therefore be considered as a potential candidate for energy-spectral efficient 5G systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3050-3064
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Communications
Issue number7
Early online date23 Nov 2017
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018


  • cost efficiency
  • economic efficiency
  • energy efficiency
  • index modulation
  • Quadrature spatial modulation
  • spectral efficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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