Psychometric properties of the Drive for Muscularity Scale in Malay men

Viren Swami, David Barron, Poh Li Lau, Jas Laile Jaafar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


The Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) is a widely used measure in studies of men's body image, but few studies have examined its psychometric properties outside English-speaking samples. Here, we assessed the factor structure of a Malay translation of the DMS. A community sample of 159 Malay men from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed the DMS, along with measures of self-esteem, body appreciation, and muscle discrepancy. Exploratory factor analysis led to the extraction of two factors, differentiating attitudes from behaviours, which mirrors the parent scale. Both factors also loaded on to a higher-order drive for muscularity factor. The subscales of the Malay DMS had adequate internal consistencies and good convergent validity, insofar as significant relationships were reported with self-esteem, body appreciation, muscle discrepancy, and body mass index. These results indicate that the Malay DMS has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used to assess body image concerns in Malay men.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-116
Number of pages6
JournalBody Image
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2016


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Body Image
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Developing Countries
  • Drive
  • Humans
  • Malaysia
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscle Development
  • Muscle Strength
  • Psychometrics/statistics & numerical data
  • Self Concept
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Translating
  • Young Adult


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