This paper presents a new Metropolis-adjusted Langevin algorithm (MALA) that uses convex analysis to simulate efficiently from high-dimensional densities that are log-concave, a class of probability distributions that is widely used in modern high-dimensional statistics and data analysis. The method is based on a new first-order approximation for Langevin diffusions that exploits log-concavity to construct Markov chains with favourable convergence properties. This approximation is closely related to Moreau--Yoshida regularisations for convex functions and uses proximity mappings instead of gradient mappings to approximate the continuous-time process. The proposed method complements existing MALA methods in two ways. First, the method is shown to have very robust stability properties and to converge geometrically for many target densities for which other MALA are not geometric, or only if the step size is sufficiently small. Second, the method can be applied to high-dimensional target densities that are not continuously differentiable, a class of distributions that is increasingly used in image processing and machine learning and that is beyond the scope of existing MALA and HMC algorithms. To use this method it is necessary to compute or to approximate efficiently the proximity mappings of the logarithm of the target density. For several popular models, including many Bayesian models used in modern signal and image processing and machine learning, this can be achieved with convex optimisation algorithms and with approximations based on proximal splitting techniques, which can be implemented in parallel. The proposed method is demonstrated on two challenging high-dimensional and non-differentiable models related to image resolution enhancement and low-rank matrix estimation that are not well addressed by existing MCMC methodology.