Providing grid frequency support using variable speed wind turbines with augmented control

Adam Stock, William Leithead

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

8 Citations (Scopus)


This paper describes a technique for generating grid frequency support using variable speed wind turbines with augmented control. This augmentation to the central controller has the form of an additional outer feedback loop wrapped around the turbine central controller. The controller is generic and can be applied to a large range of turbines. No modification to the full envelope controller or converter design or operation is required. The support provided is in the form of synthetic inertia, which is an increase in power output proportional to the rate of change of grid frequency. This has an analogous effect upon frequency change as an increase in the inertia of the system. This increase in power is generated by converting kinetic energy in the rotating blades into electrical energy via an increase in the generator torque demand causing a reduction in rotational speed. After the grid frequency has recovered, power output is reduced as some of the energy from the wind is used to accelerate the blades back to their normal operating speed. The controller incorporates restrictions that prevent the operating point of the wind turbine from moving outside of a defined safe operating envelope, above the minimum rotor speed and outside of any undesirable operating areas. The controller required to provide synthetic inertia is described and results of the controller in use, as modelled in GL Bladed are shown. Additional results are shown of simulations designed to deliberately activate the safety features that prevent operation outside of the safe operational envelope.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEuropean Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition 2012
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)9781627482912
Publication statusPublished - 2012
EventEuropean Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition 2012 - Copenhagen, Denmark
Duration: 16 Apr 201219 Apr 2012


ConferenceEuropean Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition 2012
Abbreviated titleEWEC 2012


  • Control
  • Grid frequency
  • Inertia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Fuel Technology


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