Both 2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) and 2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (EMHF) were produced at concentrations up to 4 mg l-1 and 20 mg l-1 respectively by yeast fermentation of a heated mixture of a single amino acid and a single sugar added to a yeast extract/peptone/glucose (YPG) medium. About 1 mg DMHF l-1 was also produced from precursors in the autoclaved YPG medium but EMHF formation depended entirely on the presence of a heated ribose/amino acid mixture. Glutamate was the best precursor amino acid for both furanones. Formation of EMHF showed a positive, non-linear response to ribose/glutamate concentration from 20 to 200 mM in the heated mixture.
- Maillard reaction