Probing the NADPH-binding site of Escherichia coli flavodoxin oxidoreductase

C Leadbeater, L McIver, D J Campopiano, S P Webster, R L Baxter, S M Kelly, N C Price, D A Lysek, M A Noble, Stephen K Chapman, A W Munro

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    Abstract

    The structure of the Escherichia coli flavodoxin NADP(+) oxidoreductase (FLDR) places three arginines (R144, R174 and R184) in the proposed NADPH-binding site. Mutant enzymes produced by site-directed mutagenesis, in which each arginine was replaced by neutral alanine, were characterized. All mutants exhibited decreased NADPH-dependent cytochrome c reductase activity (R144A, 241.6 min(-1); R174A, 132.1 min(-1); R184A, 305.5 min(-1) versus wild type, 338.9 min(-1)) and increased K-m for NADPH (R144A, 5.3 muM; R174A, 20.2 muM; R184A, 54.4 muM versus wild type, 3.9 muM). The k(cat) value for NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction was increased for R174A (42.3 min(-1)) and R184A (50.4 min(-1)) compared with the wild type (33.0 min(-1)), consistent with roles for R174 and R184 in discriminating between NADPH/NADH by interaction with the adenosine ribose 2'-phosphate. Stopped-flow studies indicated that affinity (K-d) for NADPH was markedly reduced in mutants R144A (635 muM) and R184A (2.3 mM) compared with the wild type (<5 M). Mutant R184A displays the greatest change in pyridine nucleotide preference, with the NADH/NADPH K-d ratio > 175-fold lower than for wild-type FLDR. The rate constant for hydride transfer from NADPH to flavin was lowest for R174A (k(red) = 8.82 s(-1) versus 22.63 s(-1) for the wild type), which also exhibited tertiary structure perturbation, as evidenced by alterations in CD and fluorescence spectra. Molecular modelling indicated that movement of the C-terminal tryptophan (W248) of FLDR is necessary to permit close approach of the nicotinamide ring of NADPH to the flavin. The positions of NADPH phosphates in the modelled structure are consistent with the kinetic data, with R174 and R184 located close to the adenosine ribose 2'-phosphate group, and R144 likely to interact with the nicotinamide ribose 5'-phosphate group.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)257-266
    Number of pages10
    JournalBiochemical Journal
    Volume352
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2000

    Keywords

    • enzyme kinetics
    • protein engineering
    • NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE
    • FERREDOXIN
    • flavodoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase
    • NITRATE REDUCTASE
    • CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE
    • AMINO-ACID SEQUENCE
    • NADH-CYTOCHROME-B5 REDUCTASE
    • CODING NUCLEOTIDE
    • ELECTRON-TRANSFER
    • coenzyme affinity
    • EXPRESSION
    • CLONING

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  • Cite this

    Leadbeater, C., McIver, L., Campopiano, D. J., Webster, S. P., Baxter, R. L., Kelly, S. M., Price, N. C., Lysek, D. A., Noble, M. A., Chapman, S. K., & Munro, A. W. (2000). Probing the NADPH-binding site of Escherichia coli flavodoxin oxidoreductase. Biochemical Journal, 352(2), 257-266. http://www.biochemj.org/bj/352/0257/3520257.pdf