Price, environment and security: Exploring multi-modal motivation in voluntary residential peak demand response

Samuel Gyamfi, Susan Krumdieck*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Citations (Scopus)


Peak demand on electricity grids is a growing problem that increases costs and risks to supply security. Residential sector loads often contribute significantly to seasonal and daily peak demand. Demand response projects aim to manage peak demand by applying price signals and automated load shedding technologies. This research investigates voluntary load shedding in response to information about the security of supply, the emission profile and the cost of meeting critical peak demand in the customers' network. Customer willingness to change behaviour in response to this information was explored through mail-back survey. The diversified demand modelling method was used along with energy audit data to estimate the potential peak load reduction resulting from the voluntary demand response. A case study was conducted in a suburb of Christchurch, New Zealand, where electricity is the main source for water and space heating. On this network, all water heating cylinders have ripple-control technology and about 50% of the households subscribe to differential day/night pricing plan. The survey results show that the sensitivity to supply security is on par with price, with the emission sensitivity being slightly weaker. The modelling results show potential 10% reduction in critical peak load for aggregate voluntary demand response.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2993-3004
Number of pages12
JournalEnergy Policy
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2011


  • Demand side management
  • Residential peak demand
  • Voluntary demand response

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Energy
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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