Preliminary study on awareness of the lean concept from the non-physical waste perspective

Mohd Ashraf Mohd Fateh, Nur Anis Sulaiman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The rate of development can be considered a remarkable achievement in Malaysia's construction industry. However, the construction industry in Malaysia does face problems such as low work productivity, delays, poor quality and high wastage activities. Wastage can be categorised into two aspects which are physical waste (raw material and work done) and non-physical waste (activities and process). This paper focuses on non-physical waste. The lean concept is a practicable solution to this issue. The concept was first introduced in the manufacturing sector and eventually entered the construction industry. This paper attempts to determine the level of awareness of the lean concept among industry players in Malaysia and identify the most significant non-physical waste in construction. This paper made use of information gained from the literature reviewed and conducted semi-structured interviews for data collection. The findings revealed that the level of awareness among industry players is still low. This paper also disclosed nine activities of non-physical wastes in construction projects that can be improved for better outcomes. The findings are useful for related stakeholders that are looking into the lean concept and increase awareness and adoption of the concept. This paper will present the literature reviewed and findings gained from the data collection exercise conducted to establish a solid stepping stone to move forward on the subject matter.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-26
Number of pages15
JournalMalaysian Construction Research Journal
Issue number3 Special issue
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Awareness
  • Non-physical waste
  • Productivity
  • The lean concept

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction


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