Preliminary psychometric scale development using the mixed methods Delphi technique

Yavor Dragostinov, Daney Harðardóttir, Peter Edward McKenna, David Robb, Birthe Nesset, Muneeb Imtiaz Ahmad, Marta Romeo, Mei Yii Lim, Chuang Yu, Youngkyoon Jang, Mohammed Diab, Anglelo Cangelosi, Yiannis Demiris, Helen Hastie, Gnanathusharan Rajendran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
146 Downloads (Pure)


This study implemented a Delphi Method; a systematic technique which relies on a panel of experts to achieve consensus, to evaluate which questionnaire items would be the most relevant for developing a new Propensity to Trust scale. Following an initial research team moderation phase, two surveys were administered to academic lecturers, professors and Ph.D. candidates specialising in the fields of either individual differences, human-robot interaction, or occupational psychology. Results from 28 experts produced 33 final questionnaire items that were deemed relevant for evaluating trust. We discuss the importance of content validity when implementing scales, while emphasising the need for more documented scale development processes in psychology. Furthermore, we propose that the Delphi technique could be utilised as an effective and economical method for achieving content validity, while also providing greater scale creation transparency.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100103
JournalMethods in Psychology
Early online date19 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Delphi method
  • Instrument development
  • Mixed methods
  • Propensity to trust
  • Scale development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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