Phosphonium chloride–based deep eutectic solvents inhibit pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype

Noor Akbar*, Amir Sada Khan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Taleb Hassan Ibrahim, Mustafa I. Khamis, Bader Saleem Alawfi, Bassam M. Al-ahmadi, Naveed Ahmed Khan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Herein, we investigated the anti-amoebic activity of phosphonium-chloride–based deep eutectic solvents against pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii of the T4 genotype. Deep eutectic solvents are ionic fluids composed of two or three substances, capable of self-association to form a eutectic mixture with a melting point lower than each substance. In this study, three distinct hydrophobic deep eutectic solvents were formulated, employing trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride as the hydrogen bond acceptor and aspirin, dodecanoic acid, and 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid as the hydrogen bond donors. Subsequently, all three deep eutectic solvents, denoted as DES1, DES2, DES3 formulations, underwent investigations comprising amoebicidal, adhesion, excystation, cytotoxicity, and cytopathogenicity assays. The findings revealed that DES2 was the most potent anti-amoebic agent, with a 94% elimination rate against the amoebae within 24 h at 30 °C. Adhesion assays revealed that deep eutectic solvents hindered amoebae adhesion to human brain endothelial cells, with DES2 exhibiting 88% reduction of adhesion. Notably, DES3 exhibited remarkable anti-excystation properties, preventing 94% of cysts from reverting to trophozoites. In cytopathogenicity experiments, deep eutectic solvent formulations and dodecanoic acid alone reduced amoebae-induced human brain endothelial cell death, with DES2 showing the highest effects. Lactate dehydrogenase assays revealed the minimal cytotoxicity of the tested deep eutectic solvents, with the exception of trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride, which exhibited 35% endothelial cell damage. These findings underscore the potential of specific deep eutectic solvents in combating pathogenic Acanthamoeba, presenting promising avenues for further research and development against free-living amoebae.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFolia Microbiologica
Early online date13 Jun 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 13 Jun 2024


  • Acanthamoeba castellanii
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Deep eutectic solvents
  • Excystment
  • Lactate dehydrogenase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology


Dive into the research topics of 'Phosphonium chloride–based deep eutectic solvents inhibit pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this