Phase Shifters vs Switches: An Energy Efficiency Perspective on Hybrid Beamforming

Sohail Payami, Naveen Mysore Balasubramanya, Christos Masouros, Mathini Sellathurai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)
319 Downloads (Pure)


Hybrid beamforming architectures provide promising solutions to harness the benefits of massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems by incorporating phase shifters, switches or their combinations. This letter addresses the design of such architectures from an energy efficiency (EE) perspective. We provide closed-form expressions to compare several promising hybrid beamforming architectures, and also derive optimal numbers of antennas required for maximizing the EE. Our results indicate that the asymptotic closed-forms provide a good approximation even for relatively small number of antennas. Moreover, the combination of phase shifters and switches offers significantly higher EE against conventional PS-only architectures, while nearly preserving spectral efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-16
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Wireless Communications Letters
Issue number1
Early online date12 Jun 2018
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019


  • Antennas
  • Array signal processing
  • Fading channels
  • hybrid beamforming
  • Massive MIMO
  • MIMO communication
  • phase shifter selection.
  • Phase shifters
  • Power demand
  • Radio frequency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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