Shear-wave velocity measured by bender elements in laboratory sand samples is shown to be dependent upon the excitation frequency and exhibits a maximum velocity for a finite frequency. By comparing the relative effects of dispersion due to propagation of shear waves through sand and dispersion due to bender element performance within sand, we show that a combination of the two processes is required to explain the observations. The magnitude of the aggregate response of the bender elements and the sand implies that reliable shear-wave velocity results cannot be obtained from bender element tests without a prior knowledge of the frequency response of the entire system.
- Phase-sensitive detection
- Shear-wave velocity