Perylene and perinone pigments

Robert Christie*, Adrian Abel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Perylenes and perinones are separate groups of pigments categorized within the carbonyl chemical class. The two pigment groups show similarities, for example, in their chemical structural features and, to an extent, in their technical and application properties as high-performance organic pigments. Perylenes constitute a series of firmly established high-performance pigments, offering red and violet colors, and also extending to black. Synthetically, they are derived from perylene-1,4,5,8-tetracarboxylic acid. The perylenes tend to be quite expensive pigments, but their high levels of fastness properties mean that they are suitable for highly demanding applications. In particular, they offer very high heat stability. Two perinone pigments are used commercially. In their synthesis from naphthalene-1,4,5,8-tetracarboxylic acid, they are formed as mixtures of the two isomers, which can be separated. The trans isomer, CI Pigment Orange 43, is a highly important commercial pigment, especially for plastics, while the cis isomer, CI Pigment Red 194, is bordeaux in color and is of much lesser importance. The perinone, CI Pigment Orange 43, provides a brilliant orange color and has very good fastness properties. Its commercial manufacture involves a challenging multistage procedure and consequently it is one of the most expensive organic pigments on the market.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)569-580
Number of pages12
JournalPhysical Sciences Reviews
Issue number10
Early online date13 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021


  • CI Pigment Black 31
  • CI Pigment Black 32
  • CI Pigment Orange 43
  • CI Pigment Red 149
  • CI Pigment Red 178
  • CI Pigment Red 179
  • CI Pigment Red 190
  • CI Pigment Red 194
  • CI Pigment Red 224
  • CI Pigment Violet 29
  • carbonyl pigments
  • cis isomer
  • crystallochromy
  • high-performance pigments
  • perinone pigments
  • perinones
  • perylene pigments
  • perylenes
  • polycyclic pigments
  • trans isomer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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