With estimated worldwide cost over $1 trillion just for dementia, diseases of the central nervous system pose a major problem to health and healthcare systems, with significant socio-economic implications for sufferers and society at large. In the last two decades, numerous strategies and technologies have been developed and adapted to achieve drug penetration into the brain, evolving alongside our understanding of the physiological barriers between the brain and surrounding tissues. The blood brain barrier (BBB) has been known as the major barrier for drug delivery to the brain. Both invasive and minimally-invasive approaches have been investigated extensively, with the minimally-invasive approaches to drug delivery being more suitable. Peptide based brain targeting has been explored extensively in the last two decades. In this review paper, we focused on self-assembled peptides, shuttle peptides and nanoparticles drug delivery systems decorated/conjugated with peptides for brain penetration.