Pedestrian red-light violations and other safety-related behaviours at signalised crosswalks

Williams Ackaah*, Joseph Larbi, Eric N. Aidoo

*Corresponding author for this work

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In this study, pedestrians’ violation rate at signalised crosswalks and the associated risk factors were investigated. The data for the study were obtained through roadside pedestrian observational surveys at 10 selected crosswalks within Accra Metropolis, Ghana. The associated risk factors for the red-light violations were determined using mixed-effect logistic regression model. The descriptive statistics revealed that the red-light violation rate in the Accra metropolis was approximately 62%. Most (63.5%) of the violations occurred during the evening and on weekends (73.6%). Over 98% of pedestrians demonstrated safety consciousness by way of crossing behaviour before and during crossing by observing oncoming traffic. From the mixed-effect logistics regression model, six independent variables being age, signal cycle length, number of pedestrians crossing at a time, day of the week and pedestrian light observation significantly influenced the risk of red-light violation by pedestrians. Effective law enforcement, education campaigns and engineering measures could be used to reduce the tendency of red-light violations by pedestrians and improve pedestrian safety at signalised crosswalks in the Accra metropolis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2353073
JournalUrban, Planning and Transport Research
Issue number1
Early online date17 May 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 May 2024


  • Ghana
  • Pedestrian
  • red-light violation
  • safety behaviors
  • signal cycle length
  • signalised crosswalk

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urban Studies
  • Transportation
  • Geography, Planning and Development


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