Passive Beam-Steering Gravitational Liquid Antennas

Chaoyun Song, Elliot L. Bennett, Jianliang Xiao, Tianyuan Jia, Rui Pei, Kwai-Man Luk, Yi Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)
62 Downloads (Pure)


We present a new concept to passively steer the antenna radiation beam to a fixed direction by utilizing the liquid fluidity behavior due to gravity. Completely different from existing technologies, the proposed antenna does not require any additional mechanical structures, phase shifting circuitry, liquid pumps, tunable elements, or their associated components. By properly designing the structure and resonant mode of the liquid dielectric resonator, the proposed passive antenna can automatically steer the radiation beam to the fixed and desired direction for communication upon physical reorientation of the antenna. An antenna prototype has been proposed with a fundamental resonant band of 1.4-1.8 GHz by using new liquid materials, while its passive beam-steering feature has been experimentally verified. This simple, elegant, and low-cost antenna has combined the gyroscopic correction, gravity, and beam steering into one for the first time, presenting significant implications for radio communications and radar systems that demand an adaptive antenna beam in certain directions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3207-3212
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number4
Early online date30 Aug 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2020


  • Beam steering
  • dielectric resonator antenna (DRA)
  • liquid antennas
  • passive antennas
  • wideband antennas

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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