Sustainable sources of high-protein plants could help meet future protein requirements. Buckwheat, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and lupin were analyzed by proximate analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine their macro- and micronutrient contents, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to elucidate the phytochemical profiles. The protein contents ranged from 20 to 43% (w/w), and all samples were found to be rich in insoluble fiber: 9-25% (w/w). The selected crops had a favorable micronutrient profile, with phosphorus levels ranging from 2.22 ± 0.05 to 9.72 ± 0.41 g kg-1, while iron levels ranged from 20.23 ± 0.86 to 69.57 ± 7.43 mg kg-1. The crops contained substantial amounts of phytophenolic compounds. In particular, buckwheat was a rich source of pelargonidin (748.17 ± 75.55 mg kg-1), epicatechin (184.1 ± 33.2 mg kg-1), quercetin (35.66 ± 2.22 mg kg-1), caffeic acid (41.74 ± 22.54 mg kg-1), and 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (63.64 ± 36.16 mg kg-1); hemp contained p-coumaric acid (84.02 ± 8.10 mg kg-1), cyanidin (58.43 ± 21.01 mg kg-1), protocatechualdehyde (34.77 ± 5.15 mg kg-1), and gentisic acid (31.20 ± 1.67 mg kg-1); and fava bean was the richest source of ferulic acid (229.51 ± 36.58 mg kg-1) and its 5-5′ (39.99 ± 1.10 mg kg-1) and 8-5 dimers (58.17 ± 6.68 mg kg-1). Demonstrating that these crops are rich sources of protein, fiber, and phytochemicals could encourage higher consumption and utilization of them as healthy and sustainable ingredients in the food and drink industry.
- food security
- future protein supply
- high-protein plants
- sustainable and healthy food ingredients
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)