Numerical modelling of particle impact and residual stresses in cold sprayed coatings: A review

Ahmed Fardan, Christopher C. Berndt, Rehan Ahmed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

77 Citations (Scopus)
115 Downloads (Pure)


Cold spray technology provides protective coatings, additive manufacturing and repair to a wide array of industrial sectors. Alternative tags for cold spray include, kinetic metallisation, kinetic fusion, hypersonic spray, gas dynamic cold spray, cold spray printing, and cold spray additive manufacturing. These processes employ the same physics principles of accelerating micrometre-sized particles to supersonic velocities that impact and adhere onto a suitably prepared substrate. Numerical modelling has been used extensively to study particle impact modelling. The prediction of critical velocity, deformation mechanism and, more recently, residual stresses have been areas of interest that have been evaluated by numerical methods such as Lagrangian, Eulerian, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian, and Molecular Dynamics. The crucial findings of these models are summarised, and their comparative outcomes assessed with a critical analysis of their merits and weaknesses. The process parameters applied in the simulations such as particle diameter, impact velocity, pre-heat temperature and material chemistry is compiled. The experimental techniques used for residual stress measurements; such as X-Ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, material removal, curvature measurement and deformation techniques, are concisely reviewed from the context of being applied to cold spray deposits.
Original languageEnglish
Article number126835
JournalSurface and Coatings Technology
Early online date12 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2021


  • Cold spray
  • Finite element analysis
  • Impact modelling
  • Particle deformation
  • Particle impact
  • Residual stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Numerical modelling of particle impact and residual stresses in cold sprayed coatings: A review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this