The underlying mechanism of oil recovery by low-salinity-water injection (LSWI) is still unknown. It would, therefore, be difficult to predict the performance of reservoirs under LSWI. A number of mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, but these are controversial and have largely ignored crucial fluid/fluid interactions. Our direct-flow-visualization investigations (Emadi and Sohrabi 2013) have revealed that a physical phenomenon takes place when certain crude oils are contacted by low-salinity water, leading to a spontaneous formation of micelles that can be seen in the form of microdispersions in the oil phase. In this paper, we present the results of a comprehensive study that includes experiments at different scales designed to systematically investigate the role of the observed crude-oil/brine interaction and micelle formation in the process of oil recovery by LSWI. The experiments include direct-flow (micromodel) visualization, crude-oil characterization, coreflooding, and spontaneous-imbibition experiments. We establish a clear link between the formation of these micelles, the natural surface-active components of crude oil, and the improvement in oil recovery because of LSWI. We present the results of a series of spontaneous- and forced-imbibition experiments carefully designed with reservoir cores to investigate the role of the microdispersions in wettability alteration and oil recovery. To further assess the significance of this mechanism, in a separate exercise, we eliminate the effect of clay by performing an LSWI experiment in a clay-free core. Absence of clay minerals is expected to significantly reduce the influence of the previously proposed mechanisms for oil recovery by LSWI. Nevertheless, we observe significant additional oil recovery compared with high-salinity-water injection (HSWI) in the clay-free porous medium. The additional oil recovery is attributed to the formation of micelles stemming from the crude-oil/brine-interaction mechanism described in this work and our previous related publications. Compositional analyses of the oil produced during this coreflood experiment indicate that the natural surface-active compounds of the crude oil had been desorbed from the rock surfaces during the LSWI period of the experiment when the additional oil was produced. The results of this study present new insights into the fundamental mechanisms involved in oil recovery by LSWI and new criteria for evaluating the potential of LSWI for application in oil reservoirs. The fluid/fluid interactions revealed in this research can be applied to oil recovery from both sandstone and carbonate oil reservoirs because they are mainly derived from fluid/fluid interactions that control wettability alteration in both sandstone and carbonate rocks.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
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- School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society, Institute for GeoEnergy Engineering - Professor
- School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society - Professor
Person: Academic (Research & Teaching)