Non-interactive XOR quantum oblivious transfer: optimal protocols and their experimental implementations

Lara Stroh, Nikola Horová, Robert Stárek, Ittoop Vergheese Puthoor, Michal Mičuda, Miloslav Dušek, Anna Erika Elisabeth Andersson

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Oblivious transfer (OT) is an important cryptographic primitive. Any multiparty computation can be realized with OT as building block. xor oblivious transfer (XOT) is a variant where the sender Alice has two bits and a receiver Bob obtains either the first bit, the second bit, or their xor. Bob should not learn anything more than this and Alice should not learn what Bob has learnt. Perfect quantum OT with information-theoretic security is known to be impossible. We determine the smallest possible cheating probabilities for unrestricted dishonest parties in noninteractive quantum XOT protocols using symmetric pure states and present an optimal protocol, which outperforms classical protocols. We also "reverse"this protocol, so that Bob becomes sender of a quantum state and Alice the receiver who measures it, while still implementing oblivious transfer from Alice to Bob. Cheating probabilities for both parties stay the same as for the unreversed protocol. We optically implement both the unreversed and the reversed protocols, and cheating strategies, noting that the reversed protocol is easier to implement.

Original languageEnglish
Article number020320
JournalPRX Quantum
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 4 May 2023


  • quantum technology
  • quantum communication
  • quantum cryptography
  • quantum oblivious transfer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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