Nitrogen pollution in mariculture: toxicity and excretion of nitrogenous compounds by marine fish

R. D. Handy, M. G. Poxton

    Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

    Abstract

    The toxicological and environmental significance of N-containing effluents discharged to seawater from fish farms is difficult to establish. Environmental quality standards for N compounds in seawater are hard to derive in the context of aquaculture because the toxicity of NH3 and NO2- to marine fish is poorly understood. Furthermore, details of aquacultural effluents are not routinely reported. Marine teleosts excrete N via the gills, skin and faeces, but do not have the metabolic capacity to cause breaches in discharge consent conditions. The most likely cause of discharge consent breaches will be poor farming practice. Nitrogen pollution will arise from food wastage, poor N absorption, and N retention. It is estimated that 52-95% of any N added to the culture system as food will ultimately pollute the environment. © 1993 Chapman & Hall.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)205-241
    Number of pages37
    JournalReviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries
    Volume3
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Sep 1993

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