Anthracites contain over 90% carbon, most of which is in the form of large, polycyclic aromatic sheets. The high carbon content and the highly aromatic nature give anthracites great potential for conversion to high-value carbon materials. This paper reviews previous work and summarizes the present status of conversion of anthracites to four types of premium carbon materials: molded or extruded graphites, binder pitch, activated carbons, and exfoliated carbons. Significant opportunities exist for the non-fuel uses of anthracites in these applications. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.