Neutral Red cytotoxicity assays for assessing in vivo carbon nanotube ecotoxicity in mussels – Comparing microscope and microplate methods

M. A. Miller, C. Bankier, Majed Al-Shaeri, Mark G J Hartl

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    Abstract

    The purpose of the present study was to compare two neutral red retention methods, the more established but very labour-intensive microscope method (NRR) against the more recently developed microplate method (NRU). The intention was to explore whether the sample volume throughput could be increased and potential operator bias avoided. Mussels Mytilus sp. were exposed in vivo to 50, 250 and 500 μg L− 1 single (SWCNTs) or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Using the NRR method, SWCNTs and MWCNTs caused concentration dependent decreases in neutral red retention time. However, a concentration dependent decrease in optical density was not observed using the NRU method. We conclude that the NRU method is not sensitive enough to assess carbon nanotube ecotoxicity in vivo in environmentally relevant media, and recommend using the NRR method.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)903-907
    Number of pages5
    JournalMarine Pollution Bulletin
    Volume101
    Issue number2
    Early online date6 Nov 2015
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 30 Dec 2015

    Keywords

    • Neutral red
    • Carbon nanotubes
    • Mytilus
    • Ecotoxicity
    • Cytotoxicity

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