Near-infrared lasing and tunable upconversion from femtosecond laser inscribed Nd,Gd:CaF2 waveguides

Ruonan Li, Lifei Sun, Yangjian Cai*, Yingying Ren, Hongliang Liu, Mark D. Mackenzie, Ajoy K. Kar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Optical channel waveguides with depressed cladding configurations have been produced in Nd, Gd: CaF2 laser crystals by using ultrafast laser inscription. Waveguide properties are investigated in terms of guiding behaviors and localized laserinduced lattice damages. Under an optical pump of 808 nm light, continuous-wave waveguide lasing at 1.06 μm is achieved, with a single-mode operation and a minimum lasing threshold of 98.8 mW. Furthermore, the visible emissions of Nd3+ with short wavelengths ranging from 415 nm to 550 nm and long wavelengths from 550 nm to 625 nm are observed upon 808 nm laser excitation via the up-converted process. The intensity ratios of two wavelength ranges are proved to be tunable through changing the pumping polarizations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number081301
JournalChinese Optics Letters
Issue number8
Early online date22 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - 10 Aug 2021


  • CaF2 crystal
  • Femtosecond laser inscription
  • Laser
  • Optical waveguide
  • Upconversion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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