Natural refrigerants for refrigeration and air-conditioning systems

S. B. Riffat, C. F. Afonso, A. C. Oliveira, D. A. Reay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

100 Citations (Scopus)


In the past, several natural working fluids were used in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. However, the appearance of CFCs caused a drastic reduction in the utilisation of those fluids. Understanding of the environmental damage of CFCs focused attention on alternative refrigerants. From these, the ones that have minimum (or nil) environmental impact are natural ones. This paper presents a review of the application of the main natural refrigerants, for refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, as an alternative to synthetic new refrigerants (HFCs). Recent research and development in this area is analysed and various cycles are considered. Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-42
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1997


  • Air-conditioning
  • Natural
  • Refrigerants
  • Refrigeration
  • Research and development


Dive into the research topics of 'Natural refrigerants for refrigeration and air-conditioning systems'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this