Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography

Mats Ekberg, Michael Larsson, Sverker Hård, Jari Turunen, Mohammad R. Taghizadeh, Jan Westerholm, Antti Vasara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Two-dimensional multilevel grating array generators with regular M×N fan-out patterns are designed using both nonlinear optimization and an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. Ten-level designs with fan-out of 2×2, 4×4, 1×8, and 8×8, with design efficiencies of 87%, 92%, 95% and 89% are manufactured using direct electron-beam lithography on electron resist. The measured efficiencies, 79%, 84%, 84% and 84% of transmitted light, respectively, are ~ 10% above the theoretical efficiencies of non-separable binary-phase array illuminators. © 1992.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-41
Number of pages5
JournalOptics Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 1992


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