Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography

Mats Ekberg, Michael Larsson, Sverker Hård, Jari Turunen, Mohammad R. Taghizadeh, Jan Westerholm, Antti Vasara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Two-dimensional multilevel grating array generators with regular M×N fan-out patterns are designed using both nonlinear optimization and an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. Ten-level designs with fan-out of 2×2, 4×4, 1×8, and 8×8, with design efficiencies of 87%, 92%, 95% and 89% are manufactured using direct electron-beam lithography on electron resist. The measured efficiencies, 79%, 84%, 84% and 84% of transmitted light, respectively, are ~ 10% above the theoretical efficiencies of non-separable binary-phase array illuminators. © 1992.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-41
Number of pages5
JournalOptics Communications
Volume88
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 1992

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illuminators
lithography
gratings
electron beams
fans
retrieval
generators
optimization
electrons

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Ekberg, M., Larsson, M., Hård, S., Turunen, J., Taghizadeh, M. R., Westerholm, J., & Vasara, A. (1992). Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography. Optics Communications, 88(1), 37-41.
Ekberg, Mats ; Larsson, Michael ; Hård, Sverker ; Turunen, Jari ; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R. ; Westerholm, Jan ; Vasara, Antti. / Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography. In: Optics Communications. 1992 ; Vol. 88, No. 1. pp. 37-41.
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Ekberg, M, Larsson, M, Hård, S, Turunen, J, Taghizadeh, MR, Westerholm, J & Vasara, A 1992, 'Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography', Optics Communications, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 37-41.

Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography. / Ekberg, Mats; Larsson, Michael; Hård, Sverker; Turunen, Jari; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R.; Westerholm, Jan; Vasara, Antti.

In: Optics Communications, Vol. 88, No. 1, 01.03.1992, p. 37-41.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography

AU - Ekberg, Mats

AU - Larsson, Michael

AU - Hård, Sverker

AU - Turunen, Jari

AU - Taghizadeh, Mohammad R.

AU - Westerholm, Jan

AU - Vasara, Antti

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AB - Two-dimensional multilevel grating array generators with regular M×N fan-out patterns are designed using both nonlinear optimization and an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. Ten-level designs with fan-out of 2×2, 4×4, 1×8, and 8×8, with design efficiencies of 87%, 92%, 95% and 89% are manufactured using direct electron-beam lithography on electron resist. The measured efficiencies, 79%, 84%, 84% and 84% of transmitted light, respectively, are ~ 10% above the theoretical efficiencies of non-separable binary-phase array illuminators. © 1992.

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Ekberg M, Larsson M, Hård S, Turunen J, Taghizadeh MR, Westerholm J et al. Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography. Optics Communications. 1992 Mar 1;88(1):37-41.