Multi-scale fracture network characterization and impact on flow: A case study on the Latemar carbonate platform

Nico J. Hardebol, Christine Maier, Hamid Nick, Sebastian Geiger, Giovanni Bertotti, Herman Boro

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    Abstract

    A fracture network arrangement is quantified across an isolated carbonate platform from outcrop and aerial imagery to address its impact on fluid flow. The network is described in terms of fracture density, orientation and length distribution parameters. Of particular interest is the role of fracture cross-connections and abutments on the effective permeability. Hence the flow simulations explicitly account for network topology by adopting Discrete-Fracture-and-Matrix description. The interior of the Latemar carbonate platform (Dolomites, Italy) is taken as outcrop analogue for subsurface reservoirs of isolated carbonate build-ups that exhibit a fracture dominated permeability. New is our dual strategy to describe the fracture network both as deterministic and stochastic based input for flow simulations. The fracture geometries are captured explicitly and form a multi-scale data set by integration of interpretations from outcrops, airborne imagery and LiDAR. The deterministic network descriptions form the basis for descriptive rules that are diagnostic of the complex natural fracture arrangement. The fracture networks exhibit a variable degree of multi-tier hierarchies with smaller sized fractures abutting against larger fractures under both right and oblique angles. The influence of network topology on connectivity is quantified using Discrete-Fracture-Single phase fluid flow simulations. The simulation results show that the effective permeability for the fracture and matrix ensemble can be 50 to 400 times higher than the matrix permeability of 1.0°10−14 m2. The permeability enhancement is strongly controlled by the connectivity of the fracture network. Therefore, the degree of intersecting and abutting fractures should be captured from outcrops with accuracy to be of value as analogue.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)8197–8222
    Number of pages26
    JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
    Volume120
    Issue number12
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015

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