Multi-Modal Portable Respiratory Rate Monitoring Device for Childhood Pneumonia Detection

Sadeque Reza Khan, Xiaohan Wang, Tiantao Jiang, Wei Ju, Norbert Radacsi, Muhammad Abdul Kadir, Khondkar Siddique-e Rabbani, Steve Cunningham, Srinjoy Mitra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
14 Downloads (Pure)


Accurate assessment of Respiratory Rate (RR) is the most important mechanism in detecting pneumonia in low-resource settings. Pneumonia is a disease with one of the highest mortality rates among young children under five. However, the diagnosis of pneumonia for infants remains challenging, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). In such situations, RR is most often measured manually with visual inspection. Accurate RR measurement requires the child to remain calm without any stress for a few minutes. The difficulty in achieving this with a sick child in a clinical environment can result in errors and misdiagnosis, even more so when the child is crying and non-cooperating around unfamiliar adults. Therefore, we propose an automated novel RR monitoring device built with textile glove and dry electrodes which can make use of the relaxed posture when the child is resting on the carer’s lap. This portable system is non-invasive and made with affordable instrumentation integrated on customized textile glove. The glove has multi-modal automated RR detection mechanism that simultaneously uses bio-impedance and accelerometer data. This novel textile glove with dry electrodes can easily be worn by a parent/carer and is washable. The real-time display on a mobile app shows the raw data and the RR value, allowing a healthcare professional to monitor the results from afar. The prototype device has been tested on 10 volunteers with age variation of 3 years to 33 years, including male and female. The maximum variation of measured RR with the proposed system is ±2 compared to the traditional manual counting method. It does not create any discomfort for either the child or the carer and can be used up to 60 to 70 sessions/day before recharging.
Original languageEnglish
Article number708
Issue number4
Early online date23 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • accelerometer
  • bioimpedance
  • breath per minute
  • low- and middle-income countries
  • respiratory rate
  • textile electrode

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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