Most millimeter wave (mmWave) channel measurements are conducted with different configurations, which may have large impacts on propagation channel characteristics. In addition, the comparison of different mmWave bands is scarce. Moreover, mmWave massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel measurements are absent, and new propagation properties caused by large antenna arrays have rarely been studied yet. In this paper, we carry out mmWave massive MIMO channel measurements at 11-, 16-, 28-, and 38-GHz bands in indoor environments. The space-alternating generalized expectation-maximization algorithm is applied to process the measurement data. Important statistical properties, such as average power delay profile, power azimuth profile, power elevation profile, root mean square delay spread, azimuth angular spread, elevation angular spread, and their cumulative distribution functions and correlation properties, are obtained and compared for different bands. New massive MIMO propagation properties, such as spherical wavefront, cluster birth-death, and non-stationarity over the antenna array, are validated for the four mmWave bands by investigating the variations of channel parameters. Two channel models are used to verify the measurements. The results indicate that massive MIMO effects should be fully characterized for mmWave massive MIMO systems.
- channel measurements
- channel models
- massive MIMO
- Millimeter wave
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering