More green space is linked to less stress in deprived communities: Evidence from salivary cortisol patterns

Catharine Ward Thompson , Jennifer Roe, Peter Alan Aspinall, Richard Mitchell , Angela Clow , David Miller

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    760 Citations (Scopus)


    Green space has been associated with a wide range of health benefits, including stress reduction, but much pertinent evidence has relied on self-reported health indicators or experiments in artificially controlled environmental conditions. Little research has been reported using ecologically valid objective measures with participants in their everyday, residential settings. This paper describes the results of an exploratory study (n = 25) to establish whether salivary cortisol can act as a biomarker for variation in stress levels which may be associated with varying levels of exposure to green spaces, and whether recruitment and adherence to the required, unsupervised, salivary cortisol sampling protocol within the domestic setting could be achieved in a highly deprived urban population. Self-reported measures of stress and general wellbeing were also captured, allowing exploration of relationships between cortisol, wellbeing and exposure to green space close to home. Results indicate significant relationships between self-reported stress (P < 0.01), diurnal patterns of cortisol secretion (P < 0.05), and quantity of green space in the living environment. Regression analysis indicates percentage of green space in the living environment is a significant (P < 0.05) and independent predictor of the circadian cortisol cycle, in addition to self-reported physical activity (P < 0.02). Results also show that compliance with the study protocol was good. We conclude that salivary cortisol measurement offers considerable potential for exploring relationships between wellbeing and green space and discuss how this ecologically valid methodology can be developed to confirm and extend findings in deprived city areas to illuminate why provision of green space close to home might enhance health.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)221-229
    JournalLandscape and Urban Planning
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2012


    • Green space
    • Stress
    • Salivary cortisol
    • Residential environment
    • Deprivation


    Dive into the research topics of 'More green space is linked to less stress in deprived communities: Evidence from salivary cortisol patterns'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this