Modelling system uncertainty in the design of embedded retaining walls

J. Oliphant

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the aspects of embedded retaining wall design, in particular the interrelationship between system uncertainty and the use of factors of safety in the various design procedures. System uncertainty reflects the mismatch between idealized retaining wall behaviour and what is observed in practice. This feature is modelled using the concept of fuzzy sets where the degree of support for the lateral stress state at failure is considered and related to current limit equilibrium design methods, measured lateral pressures and the results of finite element analyses. The proposed model is shown to have some advantages over current design practice.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)45-54
    Number of pages10
    JournalProceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Geotechnical Engineering
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1999


    • Geotechnical engineering
    • Mathematical modelling
    • Retaining walls


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