Modeling of cryogenic frictional behaviour of titanium alloys using Response Surface Methodology approach

N. S. M. El-Tayeb, Tze Chuen Yap, V. C. Venkatesh, P. V. Brevern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


The potential of cryogenic effect on frictional behaviour of newly developed titanium alloy Ti-5Al-4V-0.6Mo-0.4Fe (Ti54) sliding against tungsten carbide was investigated and compared with conventional titanium alloy Ti6Al4V (Ti64). In this study, four models were developed to describe the interrelationship between the friction coefficient (response) and independent variables such as speed, load, and sliding distance (time). These variables were investigated using the design of experiments and utilization of the response surface methodology (RSM). By using this method, it was possible to study the effect of main and mixed (interaction) independent variables on the friction coefficient (COF) of both titanium alloys. Under cryogenic condition, the friction coefficient of both Ti64 and Ti54 behaved differently, i.e. an increase in the case of Ti64 and decrease in the case of Ti54. For Ti64, at higher levels of load and speed, sliding in cryogenic conditions produces relatively higher friction coefficients compared to those obtained in dry air conditions. On contrary, introduction of cryogenic fluid reduces the friction coefficients of Ti54 at all tested conditions of load, speed, and time. The established models demonstrated that the mixed effect of load/speed, time/speed, and load/time consistently decrease the COF of Ti54. However this was not the case for Ti64 whereas the COF increased up to 20% when the Ti64 was tested at higher levels of load and sliding time. Furthermore, the models indicated that interaction of loads and speeds was more effective for both Ti-alloy and have the most substantial influence on the friction. In addition, COF for both alloys behaved linearly with the speed but nonlinearly with the load.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4023-4034
Number of pages12
JournalMaterials & Design
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2009


  • Cryogenic sliding
  • Friction coefficient
  • Response surface methodology
  • Ti6Al4V

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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