Modeling head-related transfer functions via spatial-temporal Gaussian process

Tatsuya Komatsu, Takanori Nishino, Gareth W. Peters, Tomoko Matsui, Kazuya Takeda

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)


We propose a novel application of a family of non-parametric statistical models to estimate head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) using spatial-temporal Gaussian processes (GPs). In this approach, we model the head-related impulse response (HRIR) utilizing non-parametric regression via a GP. The challenge posed by this problem involves accurate modeling of the spatial correlation structure jointly with the temporal correlation structure at each spatial location for the HRIR. We solve this problem by constructing a joint spatial-temporal kernel characterizing the GP regression model. To perform inference, we estimate the hyper-parameters of the GP regression kernel via maximum signal-to-deviation-ratio estimation on the basis of a real experimental setup in which we collected observations of the HRIR using two head-and-torso simulators (HATSs): KEMAR and B&K. We also perform cross validation of the model by training on the KEMAR system and assessing the generalization of our model and its out-of-sample predictive power for HRIRs at any locations that we predict by the model assessed on the B&K system. The corresponding HRTFs are obtained as the Fourier transform of the HRIRs. In the experiments, we show that our method is robust against variation in the azimuth interval needed to perform high-accuracy interpolation and has the expressive power to handle the individual characteristics of each HATS.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2013 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing
Number of pages5
ISBN (Print)9781479903566
Publication statusPublished - 21 Oct 2013
Event38th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 2013 - Vancouver, BC, Canada
Duration: 26 May 201331 May 2013


Conference38th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 2013
Abbreviated titleICASSP 2013
CityVancouver, BC


  • Gaussian Process
  • Head-related Impulse Response
  • Head-Related Transfer Function
  • Interpolation
  • Kernel Methods

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Software
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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