Mid-infrared volume diffraction gratings in IG2 chalcogenide glass

Fabrication, characterization, and theoretical verification

Helen L. Butcher, David Guillaume MacLachlan, David Lee, Richard A. Brownsword, Robert R. Thomson, Damien Weidmann

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Ultrafast laser inscription (ULI) has previously been employed to fabricate volume diffraction gratings in chalcogenide glasses, which operate in transmission mode in the mid-infrared spectral region. Prior gratings were manufactured for applications in astrophotonics, at wavelengths around 2.5 μm. Rugged volume gratings also have potential use in remote atmospheric sensing and molecular spectroscopy; for these applications, longer wavelength operation is required to coincide with atmospheric transparency windows (3-5 μm) and intense ro-vibrational molecular absorption bands. We report on ULI gratings inscribed in IG2 chalcogenide glass, enabling access to the full 3-5 μm window. High-resolution broadband spectral characterization of fabricated gratings was performed using a Fourier transform spectrometer. The zeroth order transmission was characterized to derive the diffraction efficiency into higher orders, up to the fourth orders in the case of gratings optimized for first order diffraction at 3 μm. The outcomes imply that ULI in IG2 is well suited for the fabrication of volume gratings in the mid infrared, providing the impact of the ULI fabrication parameters on the grating properties are well understood. To develop this understanding, grating modeling was conducted. Parameters studied include grating thickness, refractive index modification, and aspect ratio of the modulation achieved by ULI. Knowledge of the contribution and sensitivity of these parameters was used to inform the design of a 4.3 μm grating expected to achieve > 95% first order efficiency. We will also present the characterization of these latest mid-infrared diffraction gratings in IG2.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOptical Components and Materials XV
EditorsShibin Jiang, Michael J. F. Digonnet
PublisherSPIE
ISBN (Electronic)9781510615427
ISBN (Print)9781510615410
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Feb 2018

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE
PublisherSPIE
Volume10528
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X

Fingerprint

Chalcogenide Glasses
Ultrafast lasers
Diffraction Grating
Mid-infrared
Diffraction gratings
gratings (spectra)
Gratings
Fabrication
gratings
Ultrafast Lasers
Infrared radiation
Glass
fabrication
glass
Molecular spectroscopy
Wavelength
Diffraction efficiency
lasers
Transparency
Spectrometers

Keywords

  • Chalcogenide
  • Grating
  • Mid-infrared
  • Transmission grating
  • Ultrafast laser inscription
  • Volume diffraction grating

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Butcher, H. L., MacLachlan, D. G., Lee, D., Brownsword, R. A., Thomson, R. R., & Weidmann, D. (2018). Mid-infrared volume diffraction gratings in IG2 chalcogenide glass: Fabrication, characterization, and theoretical verification. In S. Jiang, & M. J. F. Digonnet (Eds.), Optical Components and Materials XV [105280R] (Proceedings of SPIE; Vol. 10528). SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2288357
Butcher, Helen L. ; MacLachlan, David Guillaume ; Lee, David ; Brownsword, Richard A. ; Thomson, Robert R. ; Weidmann, Damien. / Mid-infrared volume diffraction gratings in IG2 chalcogenide glass : Fabrication, characterization, and theoretical verification. Optical Components and Materials XV. editor / Shibin Jiang ; Michael J. F. Digonnet. SPIE, 2018. (Proceedings of SPIE).
@inproceedings{6fc8cedefaf14d7eaf1320bf89232e66,
title = "Mid-infrared volume diffraction gratings in IG2 chalcogenide glass: Fabrication, characterization, and theoretical verification",
abstract = "Ultrafast laser inscription (ULI) has previously been employed to fabricate volume diffraction gratings in chalcogenide glasses, which operate in transmission mode in the mid-infrared spectral region. Prior gratings were manufactured for applications in astrophotonics, at wavelengths around 2.5 μm. Rugged volume gratings also have potential use in remote atmospheric sensing and molecular spectroscopy; for these applications, longer wavelength operation is required to coincide with atmospheric transparency windows (3-5 μm) and intense ro-vibrational molecular absorption bands. We report on ULI gratings inscribed in IG2 chalcogenide glass, enabling access to the full 3-5 μm window. High-resolution broadband spectral characterization of fabricated gratings was performed using a Fourier transform spectrometer. The zeroth order transmission was characterized to derive the diffraction efficiency into higher orders, up to the fourth orders in the case of gratings optimized for first order diffraction at 3 μm. The outcomes imply that ULI in IG2 is well suited for the fabrication of volume gratings in the mid infrared, providing the impact of the ULI fabrication parameters on the grating properties are well understood. To develop this understanding, grating modeling was conducted. Parameters studied include grating thickness, refractive index modification, and aspect ratio of the modulation achieved by ULI. Knowledge of the contribution and sensitivity of these parameters was used to inform the design of a 4.3 μm grating expected to achieve > 95{\%} first order efficiency. We will also present the characterization of these latest mid-infrared diffraction gratings in IG2.",
keywords = "Chalcogenide, Grating, Mid-infrared, Transmission grating, Ultrafast laser inscription, Volume diffraction grating",
author = "Butcher, {Helen L.} and MacLachlan, {David Guillaume} and David Lee and Brownsword, {Richard A.} and Thomson, {Robert R.} and Damien Weidmann",
year = "2018",
month = "2",
day = "22",
doi = "10.1117/12.2288357",
language = "English",
isbn = "9781510615410",
series = "Proceedings of SPIE",
publisher = "SPIE",
editor = "Shibin Jiang and Digonnet, {Michael J. F.}",
booktitle = "Optical Components and Materials XV",
address = "United States",

}

Butcher, HL, MacLachlan, DG, Lee, D, Brownsword, RA, Thomson, RR & Weidmann, D 2018, Mid-infrared volume diffraction gratings in IG2 chalcogenide glass: Fabrication, characterization, and theoretical verification. in S Jiang & MJF Digonnet (eds), Optical Components and Materials XV., 105280R, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 10528, SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2288357

Mid-infrared volume diffraction gratings in IG2 chalcogenide glass : Fabrication, characterization, and theoretical verification. / Butcher, Helen L.; MacLachlan, David Guillaume; Lee, David; Brownsword, Richard A.; Thomson, Robert R.; Weidmann, Damien.

Optical Components and Materials XV. ed. / Shibin Jiang; Michael J. F. Digonnet. SPIE, 2018. 105280R (Proceedings of SPIE; Vol. 10528).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

TY - GEN

T1 - Mid-infrared volume diffraction gratings in IG2 chalcogenide glass

T2 - Fabrication, characterization, and theoretical verification

AU - Butcher, Helen L.

AU - MacLachlan, David Guillaume

AU - Lee, David

AU - Brownsword, Richard A.

AU - Thomson, Robert R.

AU - Weidmann, Damien

PY - 2018/2/22

Y1 - 2018/2/22

N2 - Ultrafast laser inscription (ULI) has previously been employed to fabricate volume diffraction gratings in chalcogenide glasses, which operate in transmission mode in the mid-infrared spectral region. Prior gratings were manufactured for applications in astrophotonics, at wavelengths around 2.5 μm. Rugged volume gratings also have potential use in remote atmospheric sensing and molecular spectroscopy; for these applications, longer wavelength operation is required to coincide with atmospheric transparency windows (3-5 μm) and intense ro-vibrational molecular absorption bands. We report on ULI gratings inscribed in IG2 chalcogenide glass, enabling access to the full 3-5 μm window. High-resolution broadband spectral characterization of fabricated gratings was performed using a Fourier transform spectrometer. The zeroth order transmission was characterized to derive the diffraction efficiency into higher orders, up to the fourth orders in the case of gratings optimized for first order diffraction at 3 μm. The outcomes imply that ULI in IG2 is well suited for the fabrication of volume gratings in the mid infrared, providing the impact of the ULI fabrication parameters on the grating properties are well understood. To develop this understanding, grating modeling was conducted. Parameters studied include grating thickness, refractive index modification, and aspect ratio of the modulation achieved by ULI. Knowledge of the contribution and sensitivity of these parameters was used to inform the design of a 4.3 μm grating expected to achieve > 95% first order efficiency. We will also present the characterization of these latest mid-infrared diffraction gratings in IG2.

AB - Ultrafast laser inscription (ULI) has previously been employed to fabricate volume diffraction gratings in chalcogenide glasses, which operate in transmission mode in the mid-infrared spectral region. Prior gratings were manufactured for applications in astrophotonics, at wavelengths around 2.5 μm. Rugged volume gratings also have potential use in remote atmospheric sensing and molecular spectroscopy; for these applications, longer wavelength operation is required to coincide with atmospheric transparency windows (3-5 μm) and intense ro-vibrational molecular absorption bands. We report on ULI gratings inscribed in IG2 chalcogenide glass, enabling access to the full 3-5 μm window. High-resolution broadband spectral characterization of fabricated gratings was performed using a Fourier transform spectrometer. The zeroth order transmission was characterized to derive the diffraction efficiency into higher orders, up to the fourth orders in the case of gratings optimized for first order diffraction at 3 μm. The outcomes imply that ULI in IG2 is well suited for the fabrication of volume gratings in the mid infrared, providing the impact of the ULI fabrication parameters on the grating properties are well understood. To develop this understanding, grating modeling was conducted. Parameters studied include grating thickness, refractive index modification, and aspect ratio of the modulation achieved by ULI. Knowledge of the contribution and sensitivity of these parameters was used to inform the design of a 4.3 μm grating expected to achieve > 95% first order efficiency. We will also present the characterization of these latest mid-infrared diffraction gratings in IG2.

KW - Chalcogenide

KW - Grating

KW - Mid-infrared

KW - Transmission grating

KW - Ultrafast laser inscription

KW - Volume diffraction grating

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85047787311&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1117/12.2288357

DO - 10.1117/12.2288357

M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 9781510615410

T3 - Proceedings of SPIE

BT - Optical Components and Materials XV

A2 - Jiang, Shibin

A2 - Digonnet, Michael J. F.

PB - SPIE

ER -

Butcher HL, MacLachlan DG, Lee D, Brownsword RA, Thomson RR, Weidmann D. Mid-infrared volume diffraction gratings in IG2 chalcogenide glass: Fabrication, characterization, and theoretical verification. In Jiang S, Digonnet MJF, editors, Optical Components and Materials XV. SPIE. 2018. 105280R. (Proceedings of SPIE). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2288357