Melbourne's commuter rail transportation is ageing and outdated. As Melbourne's population is ever-increasing, its rail transportation infrastructure planning also needs to be developed, based on long-term technological advancements. Subsequently, Melbourne's rail network and its systems need to be continuously scrutinized. This study thus reviews Melbourne's advanced rail transportation systems, and determines its future perspectives. This research initially found that, for Melbourne, one of the important aspects of long-term technological innovation is the inclusion of the three specific automation measures of; moderate intrusion control systems; revamp signaling technologies; and new rail lines and systems. Further examination recommended that advanced rail transportation systems including enhanced communications systems, be carefully integrated. Such outcomes will in turn boost Melbourne's rail performance through, a) increase safety and passenger satisfaction; b) enhance system reliability; c) intensify train frequency and capacity; d) improve operational flexibility; and e) reduce the overall operating costs. It is expected that these findings will ultimately assist the relevant rail transportation planners, to make optimal decisions when deciding on the selection of the most advanced rail transportation strategies.