Measuring the impact of nonpharmaceutical interventions on the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic at a city level: An agent-based computational modelling study of the City of Natal

Paulo Henrique Lopes, Liam Wellacott, Leandro de Almeida, Lourdes Milagros Mendoza Villavicencio, André Luiz de Lucena Moreira, Dhiego Souto Andrade, Alyson Matheus de Carvalho Souza, Rislene Katia Ramos de Sousa, Priscila de Souza Silva, Luciana Lima, Michael Lones, José-Dias do Nascimento, Patricia A. Vargas, Renan Cipriano Moioli, Wilfredo Blanco Figuerola, César Rennó-Costa

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Abstract

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic hit almost all cities in Brazil in early 2020 and lasted for several months. Despite the effort of local state and municipal governments, an inhomogeneous nationwide response resulted in a death toll amongst the highest recorded globally. To evaluate the impact of the nonpharmaceutical governmental interventions applied by different cities—such as the closure of schools and businesses in general—in the evolution and epidemic spread of SARS-CoV-2, we constructed a full-sized agent-based epidemiological model adjusted to the singularities of particular cities. The model incorporates detailed demographic information, mobility networks segregated by economic segments, and restricting bills enacted during the pandemic period. As a case study, we analyzed the early response of the City of Natal—a midsized state capital—to the pandemic. Although our results indicate that the government response could be improved, the restrictive mobility acts saved many lives. The simulations show that a detailed analysis of alternative scenarios can inform policymakers about the most relevant measures for similar pandemic surges and help develop future response protocols.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0000540
Number of pages27
JournalPLOS Global Public Health
Volume2
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Oct 2022

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