Measuring change in longitudinal research on pragmatic competence: A multinomial logistic model

Anna Szczepaniak-Kozak, Ewa Bakinowska, Katerina Strani

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This paper focuses on pragmatic competence development in second or foreign language learners. In particular, it attempts to fill the significant research gap in measuring change in pragmatic competence and capturing pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic development over time. The paper proposes an innovative approach by applying a logistic model with multinomial distribution for measuring change in InterLanguage Pragmatics Research (ILP). Applied in the field of pragmatics, this statistical tool offers a comprehensive and flexible approach to modelling relations between independent and dependent variables in ILP research. The model is tested in a longitudinal study of Polish undergraduate students learning English, and specifically in the way they formulate requests by means of requestive directness strategies. The paper concludes that, regardless of time elapsing, the factors P (power distance) and D (social distance) have a highly significant influence on the use of requestive directness strategies by Poles learning EFL. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that the pragmatic output of Poles learning EFL is dependent on one more independent variable: the estimation of future social distance (F).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-220
Number of pages26
JournalBiometrical Letters
Issue number2
Early online date31 Dec 2020
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • pragmatics
  • Second language (L2) acquisition
  • EFL
  • English language
  • multinomial logistic model
  • pragmatic competence
  • interlanguage pragmatics research
  • longitudinal research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Modelling and Simulation


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