Measuring change in longitudinal research on pragmatic competence: A multinomial logistic model

Anna Szczepaniak-Kozak, Ewa Bakinowska, Katerina Strani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This paper focuses on pragmatic competence development of second or foreign language learners. In particular, it attempts to fill the significant research gap in measuring change in pragmatic competence and capturing pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic development over time. The paper proposes an innovative approach by applying a logistic model with multinomial distribution for measuring change in InterLanguage Pragmatics Research (ILP). Applied in the field of pragmatics, this statistical tool offers a comprehensive and flexible approach to modelling relations between independent and dependent variables in ILP research. The model is tested in a longitudinal study of Polish undergraduate students learning English, and specifically in the way they formulate requests by means of requestive directness strategies. The paper concludes that, regardless of time elapsing, P (power distance) and D (social distance) in a highly significant manner condition the use of requestive directness strategies by Poles learning EFL. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that pragmatic output of Poles learning EFL is dependent on one more independent variable: ‘the estimation of future social distance’ (F).
Original languageEnglish
JournalBiometrical Letters
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 22 Jun 2020


  • pragmatics
  • Second language (L2) acquisition
  • Polish language
  • English language
  • multinomial
  • pragmatic competence
  • interlanguage pragmatics research

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