Management and environmental risk study of the physicochemical parameters of ballast water

Nosaibeh Nosrati Ghods, Mehdi Ghadiri*, Wolf-Gerrit Fruh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
220 Downloads (Pure)


Shipping is a vital industry for the global economy. Stability of ships, provided by ballast water, is a crucial factor for cargo loading and unloading processes. Ballast water treatment has practical significance in terms of environmental issues, ecosystem, and human health, because ships discharge this water into the environment before loading their cargos. This study reviews the common methods for ballast water management - exchange, heating, filtration, ultrasonic treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, chemicals, and gas supersaturation - to select the best one. This study compares water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals (Co, Cr, Ni, Pb) for ballast tanks of selected ships with the recipient port environment in the Persian Gulf as a case study. The exchange of ballast water in the ocean and/or its treatment on board to prevent inadvertent effects on the environment's physicochemical conditions is related to vessel characteristics, legislation, and the environmental condition. Ecological risk study showed that the salt content in ballast water is close to that of seawater, but the values of Cr (2.1. mg/l) and Ni (0.029. mg/l) in ballast water are higher than those in seawater (1 and 0.004. mg/l, respectively).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)428–438
Number of pages11
JournalMarine Pollution Bulletin
Issue number1
Early online date5 Oct 2016
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2017


  • Ballast water
  • Ecological risk study
  • Management
  • Physiochemical condition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Pollution


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