Major impacts of climate change on deep-sea benthic ecosystems

Andrew K. Sweetman, Andrew R. Thurber, Craig R. Smith, Lisa A. Levin, Camilo Mora, Chih Lin Wei, Andrew J. Gooday, Daniel O. B. Jones, Michael Rex, Moriaki Yasuhara, Jeroen Ingels, Henry A. Ruhl, Christina A. Frieder, Roberto Danovaro, Laura Würzberg, Amy R. Baco, Benjamin M. Grupe, Alexis Pasulka, Kirstin S. Meyer, Katherine M. Dunlop & 2 others Lea-Anne Henry, J. Murray Roberts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The deep sea encompasses the largest ecosystems on Earth. Although poorly known, deep seafloor ecosystems provide services that are vitally important to the entire ocean and biosphere. Rising atmospheric greenhouse gases are bringing about significant changes in the environmental properties of the ocean realm in terms of water column oxygenation, temperature, pH and food supply, with concomitant impacts on deep-sea ecosystems. Projections suggest that abyssal (3000–6000 m) ocean temperatures could increase by 1°C over the next 84 years, while abyssal seafloor habitats under areas of deep-water formation may experience reductions in water column oxygen concentrations by as much as 0.03 mL L–1 by 2100. Bathyal depths (200–3000 m) worldwide will undergo the most significant reductions in pH in all oceans by the year 2100 (0.29 to 0.37 pH units). O2 concentrations will also decline in the bathyal NE Pacific and Southern Oceans, with losses up to 3.7 % or more, especially at intermediate depths. Another important environmental parameter, the flux of particulate organic matter to the seafloor, is likely to decline significantly in most oceans, most notably in the abyssal and bathyal Indian Ocean where it is predicted to decrease by 40–55 % by the end of the century. Unfortunately, how these major changes will affect deep-seafloor ecosystems is, in some cases, very poorly understood. In this paper, we provide a detailed overview of the impacts of these changing environmental parameters on deep-seafloor ecosystems that will most likely be seen by 2100 in continental margin, abyssal and polar settings. We also consider how these changes may combine with other anthropogenic stressors (e.g., fishing, mineral mining, oil and gas extraction) to further impact deep-seafloor ecosystems, and discuss the possible societal implications.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4
JournalElementa : Science of the Anthropocene
Volume5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 Feb 2017

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deep sea
seafloor
climate change
ecosystem
ocean
water column
deep water formation
atmospheric gas
oxygenation
particulate organic matter
food supply
ecosystem service
biosphere
benthic ecosystem
continental margin
fishing
greenhouse gas
oxygen
oil
habitat

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Sweetman, A. K., Thurber, A. R., Smith, C. R., Levin, L. A., Mora, C., Wei, C. L., ... Roberts, J. M. (2017). Major impacts of climate change on deep-sea benthic ecosystems. Elementa : Science of the Anthropocene, 5, [4]. https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.203
Sweetman, Andrew K. ; Thurber, Andrew R. ; Smith, Craig R. ; Levin, Lisa A. ; Mora, Camilo ; Wei, Chih Lin ; Gooday, Andrew J. ; Jones, Daniel O. B. ; Rex, Michael ; Yasuhara, Moriaki ; Ingels, Jeroen ; Ruhl, Henry A. ; Frieder, Christina A. ; Danovaro, Roberto ; Würzberg, Laura ; Baco, Amy R. ; Grupe, Benjamin M. ; Pasulka, Alexis ; Meyer, Kirstin S. ; Dunlop, Katherine M. ; Henry, Lea-Anne ; Roberts, J. Murray . / Major impacts of climate change on deep-sea benthic ecosystems. In: Elementa : Science of the Anthropocene. 2017 ; Vol. 5.
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Sweetman, AK, Thurber, AR, Smith, CR, Levin, LA, Mora, C, Wei, CL, Gooday, AJ, Jones, DOB, Rex, M, Yasuhara, M, Ingels, J, Ruhl, HA, Frieder, CA, Danovaro, R, Würzberg, L, Baco, AR, Grupe, BM, Pasulka, A, Meyer, KS, Dunlop, KM, Henry, L-A & Roberts, JM 2017, 'Major impacts of climate change on deep-sea benthic ecosystems', Elementa : Science of the Anthropocene, vol. 5, 4. https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.203

Major impacts of climate change on deep-sea benthic ecosystems. / Sweetman, Andrew K.; Thurber, Andrew R.; Smith, Craig R.; Levin, Lisa A.; Mora, Camilo; Wei, Chih Lin; Gooday, Andrew J.; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Rex, Michael; Yasuhara, Moriaki; Ingels, Jeroen; Ruhl, Henry A.; Frieder, Christina A.; Danovaro, Roberto; Würzberg, Laura; Baco, Amy R.; Grupe, Benjamin M.; Pasulka, Alexis ; Meyer, Kirstin S.; Dunlop, Katherine M.; Henry, Lea-Anne; Roberts, J. Murray .

In: Elementa : Science of the Anthropocene, Vol. 5, 4, 23.02.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Major impacts of climate change on deep-sea benthic ecosystems

AU - Sweetman, Andrew K.

AU - Thurber, Andrew R.

AU - Smith, Craig R.

AU - Levin, Lisa A.

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AU - Wei, Chih Lin

AU - Gooday, Andrew J.

AU - Jones, Daniel O. B.

AU - Rex, Michael

AU - Yasuhara, Moriaki

AU - Ingels, Jeroen

AU - Ruhl, Henry A.

AU - Frieder, Christina A.

AU - Danovaro, Roberto

AU - Würzberg, Laura

AU - Baco, Amy R.

AU - Grupe, Benjamin M.

AU - Pasulka, Alexis

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AU - Dunlop, Katherine M.

AU - Henry, Lea-Anne

AU - Roberts, J. Murray

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N2 - The deep sea encompasses the largest ecosystems on Earth. Although poorly known, deep seafloor ecosystems provide services that are vitally important to the entire ocean and biosphere. Rising atmospheric greenhouse gases are bringing about significant changes in the environmental properties of the ocean realm in terms of water column oxygenation, temperature, pH and food supply, with concomitant impacts on deep-sea ecosystems. Projections suggest that abyssal (3000–6000 m) ocean temperatures could increase by 1°C over the next 84 years, while abyssal seafloor habitats under areas of deep-water formation may experience reductions in water column oxygen concentrations by as much as 0.03 mL L–1 by 2100. Bathyal depths (200–3000 m) worldwide will undergo the most significant reductions in pH in all oceans by the year 2100 (0.29 to 0.37 pH units). O2 concentrations will also decline in the bathyal NE Pacific and Southern Oceans, with losses up to 3.7 % or more, especially at intermediate depths. Another important environmental parameter, the flux of particulate organic matter to the seafloor, is likely to decline significantly in most oceans, most notably in the abyssal and bathyal Indian Ocean where it is predicted to decrease by 40–55 % by the end of the century. Unfortunately, how these major changes will affect deep-seafloor ecosystems is, in some cases, very poorly understood. In this paper, we provide a detailed overview of the impacts of these changing environmental parameters on deep-seafloor ecosystems that will most likely be seen by 2100 in continental margin, abyssal and polar settings. We also consider how these changes may combine with other anthropogenic stressors (e.g., fishing, mineral mining, oil and gas extraction) to further impact deep-seafloor ecosystems, and discuss the possible societal implications.

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